Friday, August 31, 2007

Saturn (mythology)
Saturn (Latin: Saturnus) was a major Roman deity of agriculture and harvest. He was identified in classical antiquity with the Greek deity Cronus, and the mythologies of the two gods are commonly mixed.
Saturn's wife was Ops, Rhea's equivalent – not Magna Mater. Saturn was the father of Ceres, Jupiter, and Veritas, among others. Saturn had a temple on the Forum Romanum which contained the Royal Treasury. Saturn is the namesake of Saturday (dies Saturni), the only day of the week to retain its Roman name in English. The planet Saturn is also named after the Roman god, being the furthest observable planet of the seven classical planets of antiquity.
Saturn (mythology)
Later concept
Further information: Cronus
In Hesiod's Theogony, a mythological account of the creation of the universe and Zeus' rise to power, Saturn is mentioned as the son of Uranus, the heavens, and Gaia, the earth. Hesiod is an early Greek poet and rhapsode, who presumably lived around 700 BC. He writes that Saturn seizes power, castrating and overthrowing his father Uranus. However, it was foretold that one day a mighty son of Saturn would in turn overthrow him, and Saturn devoured all of his children when they were born to prevent this. Saturn's wife, Ops, hid her sixth child on the island of Crete, and offered Saturn a large stone wrapped in swaddling clothes in his place. Jupiter later overthrew Saturn and the other Titans, becoming the new supreme ruler of the cosmos.
In memory of the Golden Age of man, a mythical age when Saturn was said to have ruled, a great feast called Saturnalia was held during the winter months around the time of the winter solstice. It was originally only one day long, taking place on December 17, but later lasted one week. During Saturnalia, roles of master and slave were reversed, moral restrictions lessened, and the rules of etiquette ignored. It is thought that the festivals of Saturnalia and Lupercalia were the roots of the carnival season.
Although Saturn changed greatly over time due to the influence of Greek mythology, he was also one of the few distinct Roman deities to predate and retain elements of his original function. As Thomas Paine wrote:
It is impossible for us now to know at what time the heathen mythology began; but it is certain, from the internal evidence that it carries, that it did not begin in the same state or condition in which it ended. All the gods of that mythology, except Saturn, were of modern invention. The supposed reign of Saturn was prior to that which is called the heathen mythology, and was so far a species of theism that it admitted the belief of only one God. Saturn is supposed to have abdicated the govemment in favour of his three sons and one daughter, Jupiter, Pluto, Neptune, and Juno; after this, thousands of other gods and demigods were imaginarily created, and the calendar of gods increased as fast as the calendar of saints and the calendar of courts have increased since.

Thursday, August 30, 2007

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Rawalpindi  (Urdu: راولپنڈی) is a city in the Potwar Plateau near Pakistan's capital city of Islamabad, in the province of Punjab. It is the military headquarters of the Pakistan Armed Forces and also served as the nation's capital while Islamabad was being constructed in the 1960s. The city is home to many industries and factories. Islamabad International Airport is actually in Rawalpindi, and it serves the city along with the capital. Rawalpindi is located in the Punjab province, 275 km (171 miles) to the north-west of Lahore. It is the administrative seat of the Rawalpindi District. The population of Rawalpindi is approximately 3,039,550.

Rawalpindi, also known as Pindi, has a long history spread over several millennia. Archaeologists believe that a distinct culture flourished on this plateau as far back as 3000 years. The material remains found at the site prove the existence of a Buddhist establishment contemporary to Taxila and the Vedic civilisation (Hindu culture). Taxila has another significance; according to Guinness Book of World Records it has the worlds oldest university - Takshashila University.
It appears that the ancient city went into oblivion as a result of the White Hun devastation. The first Muslim invader, Mahmud of Ghazni (979-1030), gave the ruined city to a Gakhar Chief, Kai Gohar. The town, however, being on an invasion route, could not prosper and remained deserted until Jhanda Khan, another Gakhar Chief, restored it and named it Rawalpindi after the village Rawal in 1493. Rawalpindi remained under the rule of the Gakkhars till Muqarrab Khan, the last Gakkhar ruler, was defeated by the Sikhs in 1765. The Sikhs invited traders from other places to settle here. This brought the city into prominence.
Following the British conquest of the Sikhs and their occupation of Rawalpindi in 1849, the city became a permanent garrison of the British army in 1851. In the 1880s a railway line to Rawalpindi was laid, and train service was inaugurated on January 1, 1886. The need for having a railway link arose after Lord Dalhousie made Rawalpindi the headquarters of the Northern Command and Rawalpindi became the largest British military garrison in British India.
In 1951, Rawalpindi saw the assassination of the first elected Prime Minister of Pakistan, Liaquat Ali Khan, in Liaquat Garden. Today Rawalpindi is the headquarters of the Pakistani Army and Air Force.
The famous Murree Road has been a hot spot for various political and social events. Nala Lai, famous for its floods, runs in the middle of the city, dividing it into city area and Cantonment area. History describes Nala Lai water as pure enough for drinking but now it has become polluted with the waste water from all sources including factories and houses.

Rawalpindi is chaotic but relatively dust-free. The literacy rate is 70.5% (January 2006). The population is ethnically and linguistically heterogeneous, comprising Pothoharis, Punjabis, Muhajirs, and Pakhtuns. The weather is highly unpredictable. The average annual rainfall is 36 inches. In summer, the maximum temperature can sometimes soar up to 52C, while it may drop to a minimum of -5C in the winter.

Rapidly developing into a large city, Rawalpindi has many good hotels, restaurants, clubs, museums and parks, of which the largest is Ayub National Park. Rawalpindi forms the base camp for the tourists visiting the holiday resorts and hill stations of the Galiyat area, such as Murree, Nathia Gali, Ayubia, Abbottabad, Swat, Kaghan, Gilgit, Hunza, Skardu and Chitral.
The best way to see Rawalpindi is by wandering through its bazaars, but you should orient yourself before setting out. The city has two main roads: the Grand Trunk Road runs roughly from east to west and is known as The Mall as it passes through the cantonment. Murree Road originates towards north from The Mall, crosses the railway lines and brushes the east end of the old city on its way to Islamabad. The two main bazaar areas are Raja Bazaar in the old city and Saddar Bazaar, which developed as the cantonment bazaar between the old city and the Mall.
The crowded alleys of the old city are home to many attractions, including Hindu and Sikh temples, Muslim shrines.
Rawalpindi has been know as military city since colonial times and therefore still remained Army head-quarter after independence in 1947. Due to this, also present in Rawalpindi is the Pakistan Army Museum, providing an interesting information about colonial and present day armies, armoury of historical significance and war heroes.
Ayub National Park is located beyond the old Presidency on Jhelum Road. It covers an area of about 2,300 acres (9.3 km²) and has a play-land, lake with boating facility, an aquarium and a garden-restaurant. Rawalpindi Public Park is located on Murree Road near Shamsabad. The Park was opened for public in 1991. It has a playland for children, grassy lawns, fountains and flower beds.
Rawalpindi Cricket Stadium, built in 1992, has a grass pitch, floodlights, and a capacity of 15,000. The home team is the Rawalpindi Cricket Association. Also located in the city is Rawalpindi Hockey stadium. This small but well built facility plays host to the national side throughout the year.
Rawat Fort is located 17 km east of Rawalpindi, on the Grand Trunk (G.T) Road leading to Lahore. Gakhars, a fiercely independent tribe of the Potwar Plateau built the fort, in early 16th century. The grave of a Gakhar Chief, Sultan Sarang Khan is located inside the fort. He died in 1546 AD fighting against the forces of Sher Shah Suri. If one dares to climb the broken steps inside the tomb, one may get a panoramic view of the plateau and the Mankiala Stupa. Besides Rawat, about an hours drive from Rawalpindi on the grand trunk road towards the city of Peshawar is Attock Fort. This impressive fort is easily visible and located near the Shrine 'Hazrat Jee Sahib', the tradition burial grounds for the 'Bati' Family of the Paracha clan from the near by (deserted) village of 'Malahi Tola'. Sadly this impressive Akbari fort is not open to the public as it is in active military use.
Pharwala Fort is about 40 km from Rawalpindi beyond Lehtrar road. It is a Gakhar fort built it in 15th century on the ruins of a 10th century Hindi Shahi Fort. Emperor Babur conquered the fort in 1519 AD. Later, in 1825, Sikhs expelled Gakhars from this fort. Though the fort is in a crumbling state, it is still an attraction for castle lovers. The fort, being situated in prohibited area, is only open for Pakistani visitors.
Rohtas Fort, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is 109 km from Rawalpindi. It is located about 6 km south-west of Dina Town. Going from Rawalpindi/Islamabad, you have to turn right from G.T. Road to a narrow road just before Dina Police Station and then go left until you find the dry bed of Kahan River. The fort is visible from this point. However, you have to cross the river to reach it. During rainy season, you need a four-wheel-drive to cross the river. The fort is one of the most impressive historical monuments in Pakistan. It was built by Afghan people ruler Sher Shah Suri, between 1540 and 1547 AD. It served as a huge fortified base for military operations against Gakhars by Sher Shah Suri. It was later used by Mughal emperor Akbar and Sikhs. Within the huge terraced rampart walls with robust bastions and twelve gates, is located another fortress, palaces and ancillary buildings (see [1])

The City-District of Rawalpindi comprises seven autonomous tehsils:
There are many ways to get in and around Rawalpindi.
The Chaklala International Airport is actually located in Rawalpindi than Islamabad and is used by over 25 airlines, both national and international. Pakistan International Airlines (PIA), the principal carrier in Pakistan, has numerous routes, with many domestic and international flights every day. Construction on the new Rawalpindi/Islamabad international airport has now been started near the town of Tarnaul approx 10 miles from both cities.
Rawalpindi is on the ancient Grand Trunk Road (also known as G.T. Road or, more recently, N-5) which links Rawalpindi to nearly every major city in northern Pakistan, from Lahore in the Punjab to Peshawar in the NWFP.
The city is also served by two nearby six-lane Motorways, M2 (Lahore-Islamabad) and M1 (Islamabad-Peshawar), which were completed in the 1990's. Somewhat further away is the famous Karakoram Highway, the world's highest international road, which connects Pakistan to China.
Public transport for travel within Rawalpindi is diverse, ranging from yellow taxis, auto-rickshaws, mini-buses and even tongas (horse-drawn carriages). Due to lack of planning of roads, mess of traffic is found even on small roads. For inter-city travel, air-conditioned and non air-conditioned buses and coaches are regularly available to many destinations in Pakistan.
There is also an Islamabad/Rawalpindi central railway station that allows travel to every major city in Pakistan. In addition to freight, Pakistan Railways provides passenger rail service throughout the day, with train coaches that have air-conditioning in first-class.

Coordinates: 33°36′N, 73°03′E
Rawal College of Commerce, Main Peshawar Road
Govt. Gordon College, Rawalpindi The oldest college of the city since 1891
St Mary's Academy and St Mary's Cambridge School the oldest and most renowned Missionary Schools for boys
Govt. College for Women, Satellite Town
F.G Sir Syed College for Boys, The Mall
F.G (C.B) College for Women
Government College of Commerce, Satellite Town
Fauji Foundation College for Boys
F.G. Sir Syed College, The Mall
Fauji Foundation Model School, Harley Street
Bahria Foundation College Peshawar Rd
Govt. Viqar un Nisa College for Women
F.G. Quaid-e-Azam College, Chaklala III
Presentation Convent High School
Govt Muslim Higher Secondary School # 1, Said Pur Road (Building stone laid in 1894)
Army Public School and College (APSAC), Ordinance Road, Lalazar
Govt. Asghar Mall College
Beacon-House Schools System
PAF Intermediate College, Chaklala
The City School (Murree Road)
Petroman Institute of Computer Science
Government Islamia High School No. 4, Liaquat Road
Asghar Mall Post Graduate College
Army Medical College (founded in 1977)
Fatima Jinnah Women's University (in commemoration of Fatima Jinnah)
Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi UAAR
National University of Science and Technology headquarters in Rawalpindi [2]
NUST Institute of Information Technology, Rawalpindi (an ordinary college deceptively named after NUST to attract admissions)[3]
[College Of Electrical & Mechanical Engineering], Rawalpindi (an affiliated college of NUST)[4]
RawalPindi Medical College, RawalPindi (an affiliated college of UHS)
Foundation University Medical College (FUMC) title
Foundation University Institute of Management and Computer Sciences
Fatima Jinnah Woman University Rawalpindi.
Virtual University of Pakistan main campus (VURWP01) Rawalpindi.
Islamic International Medical College (IIMC) [5]
Gujar Khan
Kallar Syedan
Kotli Sattian
Jinnah Park
Ayub Park
Rumi Park
Public Park
Shah Balot Park
Maps and aerial photos for 33°35′56″N 73°04′39″E / 33.598893, 73.077621Coordinates: 33°35′56″N 73°04′39″E / 33.598893, 73.077621
WikiSatellite view at WikiMapia
VirtualGlobetrotting maps at VirtualGlobetrotting
Weather satellite image from NASA - Images of Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi Complete History, Photos, Maps, Videos Website
Explore the city of Rawalpindi in 3D by using Google Earth
Rawalpindi Blog

Tuesday, August 28, 2007

Otto Diels
Otto Paul Hermann Diels (January 23, 1876March 7, 1954) was a German chemist. He was the son of a professor of philology at the University of Berlin, where he himself earned his doctorate in chemistry, in the group of Emil Fischer.
Diels taught till 1916 at the University of Berlin and from 1916 till 1945 at the University of Kiel. Two of his sons were killed in World War II.
In 1950 he was awarded (with Kurt Alder, his student) the Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis," known also as the Diels-Alder Reaction. This amazing reaction regioselectively produces up to four chiral centers and is widely considered to be one of the most powerful reactions in organic synthesis.

Monday, August 27, 2007

An associative array (also map, hash, dictionary, finite map, lookup table, and in query-processing an index or index file) is an abstract data type composed of a collection of keys and a collection of values, where each key is associated with one value. The operation of finding the value associated with a key is called a lookup or indexing, and this is the most important operation supported by an associative array. The relationship between a key and its value is sometimes called a mapping or binding. For example, if the value associated with the key "bob" is 7, we say that our array maps "bob" to 7. Associative arrays are very closely related to the mathematical concept of a function with a finite domain. As a consequence, a common and important use of associative arrays is in memoization.
From the perspective of a programmer using an associative array, it can be viewed as a generalization of an array: While a regular array maps integers to arbitrarily typed objects (integers, strings, pointers, and, in an OO sense, objects), an associative array maps arbitrarily typed objects to arbitrarily typed objects. (Implementations of the two data structures, though, may be considerably different.)
The operations that are usually defined for an associative array are:

Add: Bind a new key to a new value
Reassign: Bind an old key to a new value
Remove: Unbind a key from a value and remove the key from the key set
Lookup: Find the value (if any) that is bound to a key Examples
Associative arrays are usually used when lookup is the most frequent operation. For this reason, implementations are usually designed to allow speedy lookup, at the expense of slower insertion and a larger storage footprint than other data structures (such as association lists).

Data structures for associative arrays
There are two main efficient data structures used to represent associative arrays, the hash table and the self-balancing binary search tree. Skip lists are also an alternative, though relatively new and not as widely used. Relative advantages and disadvantages include:

Hash tables have faster average lookup and insertion time (O(1)), while some kinds of binary search tree have faster worst-case lookup and insertion time (O(log n) instead of O(n)). Hash tables have seen extensive use in realtime systems, but trees can be useful in high-security realtime systems where untrusted users may deliberately supply information that triggers worst-case performance in a hash table, although careful design can remove that issue. Hash tables shine in very large arrays, where O(1) performance is important. Skip lists have worst-case operation time of O(n), but average-case of O(log n), with much less insertion and deletion overhead than balanced binary trees.
Hash tables can have more compact storage for small value types, especially when the values are bits.
There are simple persistent versions of balanced binary trees, which are especially prominent in functional languages.
Building a hash table requires a reasonable hash function for the key type, which can be difficult to write well, while balanced binary trees and skip lists only require a total ordering on the keys. On the other hand, with hash tables the data may be cyclically or partially ordered without any problems.
Balanced binary trees and skip lists preserve ordering — allowing one to efficiently iterate over the keys in order or to efficiently locate an association whose key is nearest to a given value. Hash tables do not preserve ordering and therefore cannot perform these operations as efficiently.
Balanced binary trees can be easily adapted to efficiently assign a single value to a large ordered range of keys, or to count the number of keys in an ordered range. Efficient representations
A simple but generally inefficient type of associative array is an association list, often called an alist for short, which simply stores a linked list of key-value pairs. Each lookup does a linear search through the list looking for a key match.
Strong advantages of association lists include:

No knowledge is needed about the keys, such as an order or a hash function.
For small associative arrays, common in some applications, association lists can take less time and space than other data structures.
Insertions are done in constant time by cons'ing the new association to the head of the list. Association lists
If the keys have a specific type, one can often use specialized data structures to gain performance. For example, integer-keyed maps can be implemented using Patricia trees or Judy arrays, and are useful space-saving replacements for sparse arrays. Because this type of data structure can perform longest-prefix matching, they're particularly useful in applications where a single value is assigned to most of a large range of keys with a common prefix except for a few exceptions, such as in routing tables.
String-keyed maps can avoid extra comparisons during lookups by using tries.

Specialized representations

Main article: Multimap (data structure) Multimap
Associative arrays can be implemented in any programming language as a package and many language systems provide them as part of their standard library. In some languages, they are not only built into the standard system, but have special syntax, often array-like subscripting.
Built-in syntactic support for associative arrays was introduced by Snobol4, under the name "table". MUMPS made multi-dimensional associative arrays, optionally persistent, its key data structure. SETL supported them as one possible implementation of sets and maps. Most modern scripting languages, starting with awk and including Perl, tcl, Javascript, Python, and Ruby, support associative arrays as their primary array type.
In many more languages, they are available as library functions without special syntax.
Associative arrays have a variety of names. In Smalltalk, Objective-C and Python they are called dictionaries; in Perl and Ruby they are called hashes; in C++ and Java they are called maps (see Map) and in Common Lisp and Windows PowerShell they are called hashtables (since both typically use this implementation). In PHP all arrays can be associative, except that the keys are limited to integers and strings and can only be a single level of subscripts.
In the scripting language Lua, associative arrays, called tables, are used as the primitive building block for all data structures, even arrays. Likewise, in JavaScript, all objects are associative arrays. In MUMPS, the associative arrays are typically stored as B-trees.

Language support
Awk has built-in, language-level support for associative arrays.
For example:
You can also loop through an associated array as follows:
You can also check if an element is in the associative array, and delete elements from an associative array.
Multi-dimensional associative arrays can be implemented in standard Awk using concatenation and e.g. SUBSEP:
Thompson AWK [1] provides built-in multi-dimensional associative arrays:

There is no standard implementation of an associative array in C, but a 3rd party library with BSD license is available here. POSIX 1003.1-2001 describes the functions hcreate(), hdestroy() and hsearch().
Another 3rd party library, uthash, also creates associative arrays from C structures. A structure represents a value, and one of the structure fields acts as the key.
Finally, the Glib library also supports associative arrays, along with many other advanced data types and is the recommended implementation of the GNU Project.

You can use a ColdFusion structure to perform as an associative array. Here is a sample in ColdFusion:

There is no standard implementation common to all dialects. Visual Basic can use the Dictionary class from the Microsoft Scripting Runtime (which is shipped with Visual Basic 6):
Visual Basic .NET relies on the collection classes provided by .NET Framework:

In the above sample the Hashtable class is only capable of associating a String key with a value of Object type. Because in .NET all types (save pointers) ultimately derive from Object anything can be put into a Hashtable, even data of different types. This could lead to errors if consuming code expects data to be of a singular type. In the above code casting is required to convert the Object variables back to their original type. Additionally, casting value-types (structures such as integers) to Object to put into the Hashtable and casting them back requires boxing/unboxing which incurs both a slight performance penalty and pollutes the heap with garbage. This changes in C# 2.0 with generic hashtables called dictionaries. There are significant performance and reliability gains to these strongly typed collections because they do not require boxing/unboxing or explicit type casts and introduce compile-time type checks.

C++ also has a form of associative array called std::map (see Standard Template Library#Containers). One could create a map with the same information as above using C++ with the following code:
You can iterate through the list with the following code:
In C++, the std::map class is templated which allows the data types of keys and values to be different for different map instances. For a given instance of the map class the keys must be of the same base type. The same must be true for all of the values. Although std::map is typically implemented using a self-balancing binary search tree, the SGI STL also provides a std::hash_map which has the algorithmic benefits of a hash table.

Cocoa (API) and GNUstep handle associative arrays using NSMutableDictionary (a mutable version of NSDictionary) class cluster. This class allows assignments between any two objects to be made. A copy of key object is made before it is being inserted into NSMutableDictionary, therefore the keys must conform to the NSCopying protocol. When being inserted to a dictionary, the value object receives a retain message to increase its reference count. The value object will receive the release message when it will be deleted from the dictionary (both explicitly or by adding to the dictionary a different object with the same key).
To access assigned objects this command may be used:
All keys or values can be simply enumerated using NSEnumerator
What is even more practical, structured data graphs may be easily created using Cocoa (API), especially NSDictionary (NSMutableDictionary). This can be ilustrated with this compact example:
And relevant fields can be quickly accessed using key paths:

Cocoa/GNUstep (Objective-C)
D offers direct support for associative arrays in the core language - they are implemented as trees . The equivalent example would be:
Keys and values can be any types, but all the keys in an associative array must be of the same type, and the same for values.
You can also loop through all properties and associated values, i.e. as follows:
A property can be removed as follows:

Delphi does not offer direct support for associative arrays. However, you can simulate associative arrays using TStrings object. Here's an example:

In Java associative arrays are implemented as "maps"; they are part of the Java Collections Framework. Since J2SE 5.0 and the introduction of generics into Java, collections can have a type specified; for example, an associative array mapping strings to strings might be specified as follows:
The get method is used to access a key; for example, the value of the expression phoneBook.get("Sally Smart") is "555-9999".
This code uses a hash map to store the associative array, by calling the constructor of the HashMap class; however, since the code only uses methods common to the interface Map, one could also use a self-balancing binary tree by calling the constructor of the TreeMap class (which implements the subinterface SortedMap, without changing the definition of the phone_book variable or the rest of the code, or use a number of other underlying data structures that implement the Map interface.
The hash function in Java is provided by the method Object.hashCode(). Since every class in Java inherits from Object, every object has a hash function. A class can override the default implementation of hashCode() to provide a custom hash function based on the properties of the object.
The Object class also contains the method equals(Object) that tests the object for equality with another object. Maps in Java rely on objects maintaining the following contract between their hashCode() and equals() methods:
In order to maintain this contract, a class that overrides equals() must also override hashCode(), and vice versa, so that hashCode() is based on the same properties (or a subset of the properties) as equals().
A further contract that the map has with the object is that the results of the hashCode() and equals() methods will not change once the object has been inserted into the map. For this reason, it is generally a good practice to base the hash function on immutable properties of the object.

JavaScript (and its standardized version: ECMAScript) is a prototype-based object-oriented language. In JavaScript an object is a mapping from property names to values -- that is, an associative array with one caveat: since property names are strings, only string keys are allowed. Other than that difference, objects also include one feature unrelated to associative arrays: a prototype link to the object they inherit from. Doing a lookup for a property will forward the lookup to the prototype if the object does not define the property itself.
An object literal is written as { property1 : value1, property2 : value2, ... }. For example:
If the property name is a valid identifier, the quotes can be omitted, e.g.:
Lookup is written using property access notation, either square brackets, which always works, or dot notation, which only works for identifier keys:
You can also loop through all properties and associated values as follows:
A property can be removed as follows:
As mentioned before, properties are strings. However, since every native object and primitive can be implicitly converted to a string, you can do:
Any object, including built-in objects such as Array, can be dynamically extended with new properties. For example:
In modern JavaScript it's considered bad form to use the Array type as an associative array. Consensus is that the Object type is best for this purpose. The reasoning behind this is that if Array is extended via prototype and Object is kept pristine, 'for(in)' loops will work as expected on associative 'arrays'. This issue has been drawn into focus by the popularity of JavaScript frameworks that make heavy and sometimes indiscriminate use of prototype to extend JavaScript's inbuilt types.
See JavaScript Array And Object Prototype Awareness Day for more information on the issue.

Note: The latest version of bash, 3.2, doesn't support associative arrays properly yet.

KornShell 93 (and compliant shells: ksh93, zsh, ...)
Lisp was originally conceived as a "LISt Processing" language, and one of its most important data types is the linked list, which can be treated as an association list ("alist").
The syntax (x . y) is used to indicate a consed pair. Keys and values need not be the same type within an alist. Lisp and Scheme provide operators such as assoc to manipulate alists in ways similar to associative arrays.
Because of their linear nature, alists are used for relatively small sets of data. Common Lisp also supports a hash table data type, and for Scheme they are implemented in SRFI 69. Hash tables have greater overhead than alists, but provide much faster access when there are many elements.
It is easy to construct composite abstract data types in Lisp, using structures and/or the object-oriented programming features, in conjunction with lists, arrays, and hash tables.

In Lua, table is a fundamental type that can be used either as array (numerical index, fast) or as associative array. The keys and values can be of any type, except nil. The following with focus on non-numerical indexes.
A table literal is written as { value, key = value, [index] = value, ["non id string"] = value }. For example:
If the key is a valid identifier (not a keyword), the quotes can be omitted. They are case sensitive.
Lookup is written using either square brackets, which always works, or dot notation, which only works for identifier keys:
You can also loop through all keys and associated values with iterators or for loops:
An entry can be removed by setting it to nil:
Likewise, you can overwrite values or add them:

In MUMPS every array is an associative array. The built-in, language-level, direct support for associative arrays applies to private, process-specific arrays stored in memory called "locals" as well as to the permanent, shared arrays stored on disk which are available concurrently by multiple jobs. The name for globals is preceded by the circumflex "^" to distinquish it from local variable names.
To access the value of an element, simply requires using the name with the subscript:
You can also loop through an associated array as follows:

The OCaml programming language provides three different associative containers. The simplest is a list of pairs:
The second is a polymorphic hash table:
Finally, functional maps (represented as immutable balanced binary trees):
Lists of pairs and functional maps both provide a purely functional interface. In contrast, hash tables provide an imperative interface. For many operations, hash tables are significantly faster than lists of pairs and functional maps.

Perl has built-in, language-level support for associative arrays. Modern Perl vernacular refers to associative arrays as hashes; the term associative array is found in older documentation, but is considered somewhat archaic. Perl hashes are flat: keys are strings and values are scalars. However, values may be references to arrays or other hashes.
A hash variable is marked by a % sigil, to distinguish it from scalar, array and other data types. A hash can be initialized from a key-value list:
Perl offers the => syntax, semantically (almost) equivalent to the comma, to make the key-value association more visible:
Accessing a hash element uses the syntax $hash_name{$key} - the key is surrounded by curly braces and the hash name is prefixed by a $, indicating that the hash element itself is a scalar value, even though it is part of a hash. The value of $phone_book{"John Doe"} is "555-1212". The % sigil is only used when referring to the hash as a whole, such as when asking for keys %phone_book.
The list of keys and values can be extracted using the built-in functions keys and values, respectively. So, for example, to print all the keys of a hash:
One can iterate through (key, value) pairs using the each function:

Associative array Perl
PHP's built-in array type is in reality an associative array. Even when using numerical indexes, PHP internally stores it as an associative array.This is why one in PHP can have non-consecutive numerically indexed arrays.
An associative array can be formed in one of two ways:
You can also loop through an associative array as follows:
PHP has an extensive set of functions to operate on arrays.

Pike has built-in support for Associative Arrays, which are referred to as mappings. Mappings are created as follows:
Accessing and testing for presence in mappings is done using the indexing operator. So phonebook["Sally Smart"] would return the string "555-9999", and phonebook["John Smith"] would return 0.
Iterating through a mapping can be done using either foreach:
Or using an iterator object:
Elements of a mapping can be removed using m_delete, which returns the value of the removed index:

In Python, associative arrays are called dictionaries. Dictionary literals are marked with curly braces:
To access an entry in Python simply use the array indexing operator. For example, the expression phonebook['Sally Smart'] would return '555-9999'.
An example loop iterating through all the keys of the dictionary:
Iterating through (key, value) tuples:
Dictionaries can also be constructed with the dict builtin, which is most commonly found inside list comprehensions and generator expressions, and it takes a key-value list:
Dictionary keys can be individually deleted using the del statement. The corresponding value can be returned before the key-value pair are deleted using the pop method of dict types;

In REXX, associative arrays are called Stem variables or Compound variables.
Stem variables with numeric keys typically start at 1 and go up from there. The 0 key stem variable is used (by convention) as the count of items in the whole stem.
REXX has no easy way of automatically accessing the keys for a stem variable and typically the keys are stored in a separate associative array with numeric keys.

In Ruby a Hash is used as follows:
phonebook['John Doe'] produces '555-1212'
To iterate over the hash, use something like the following:
Additionally, each key may be shown individually:
Each value may, of course, also be shown:

In Smalltalk a dictionary is used:
To access an entry the message #at: is sent to the dictionary object.

Unlike many other command line interpreters, PowerShell has built-in, language-level support for defining associative arrays.
For example:
Like in JavaScript, if the property name is a valid identifier, the quotes can be omitted, e.g.:
It is also possible to create an empty associative array and add single entries or even other associative arrays to it later on.
New entries can also be added by using the array index operator, the property operator or the Add() method of the underlying .NET object:
To dereference assigned objects the array index operator, the property operator or the parameterized property Item() of the .NET object can be used:
You can loop through an associative array as follows:
An entry can be removed using the Remove() method of the the underlying .NET object:

Sunday, August 26, 2007

Image:Ltspkr.pngSchermer (West Frisian: Skirmare) is a municipality in the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland.
The municipality of Schermer includes not only the Schermer polder, but also the polders Oterleek and Mijzenpolder and Eilandspolder. Only the villages Stompetoren and Zuidschermer are in the Schermer polder.

Schermer Population centres
The municipal council of Schermer consists of 11 seats, which are divided as follows:

CDA - 3 seats
Gemeentebelangen - 3 seats
SGOL - 2 seats
VVD - 2 seats
PvdA - 1 seat

Saturday, August 25, 2007

The Battle of Barnet, which took place on April 14, 1471, was a decisive battle of the Wars of the Roses, near the town of Barnet, 10 miles north of London.

Battle of Barnet Background
The main protagonists were King Edward IV of England and Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, former friends and allies who had fallen out as a result of Edward's tendency to favour the relatives of his queen, Elizabeth Woodville. In October of the previous year, Warwick "the Kingmaker" had driven Edward out of the country, replacing his Lancastrian predecessor, King Henry VI of England, on the throne. Warwick then made the mistake of agreeing to assist King Louis XI of France in his conflict with the Duke of Burgundy. This prompted the Burgundians to offer military aid to Edward, who returned to England on March 14, 1471. The two armies were evenly matched in numbers, but Warwick was expecting support from his son-in-law, George, Duke of Clarence, who happened to be Edward's brother and hurried to make his peace with the latter.
Edward marched to London while Warwick remained in Coventry where he had been raising troops. Having taken back his capital, Edward then moved to meet Warwick at Barnet.

Friday, August 24, 2007

Harrods bombing
The Harrods Bombing was a car-bomb attack carried out by the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) outside Harrods Department Store, London on December 17, 1983 in which six people were killed.

Second bomb warning
A memorial that marks the spot where the three police officers were killed is located on the side of Harrods at Hans Crescent.

Thursday, August 23, 2007

The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews History
The R&A is the ruling authority of golf everywhere except the United States and Mexico where this responsibility rests with the United States Golf Association (USGA). It works in collaboration with national amateur and professional golf organisations in more than one hundred and ten countries. It also attempts to spread the game to new countries.
The R&A cooperates with the USGA in producing and regularly revising the "Rules of Golf", and the two bodies have issued the rules jointly since 1952. They also collaborate on the corresponding exegetic work, the "Decisions on the Rules of Golf". The R&A is also involved in formulating technical specifications for golfing equipment.
The R&A founded what are now the Official World Golf Rankings for male professionals in 1986 and the World Amateur Golf Rankings for male amateurs in 2007.

The R&A
The R&A organises 11 championships and international matches:
Apart from the Junior Open Championships all of these events are for men and boys. The Ladies Golf Union organises a similar range of events for women and girls, most notably the Women's British Open. The R&A is also involved in the organisation of the two World Amateur Team Championships - the Eisenhower Trophy for men and the Espirito Santo Trophy for women - through its role in the International Golf Federation.

The Open Championship: one of the four major championships in men's golf.
The Amateur Championship: which was one of the four major championships before the professional game became dominant and is still one of the most prestigious amateur tournaments in the world.
Boys Amateur Championship: for boys under the age of 18 at 00.00 hours on 1 January of the relevant year.
Boys Home Internationals: a team competition for boys from England, Scotland, Wales and all-Ireland.
Seniors Open Amateur Championship: for male amateurs aged 55 or over on the first day of competition.
British Mid-Amateur Championship: for amateurs aged 25 and over. This tournament was introduced to provide an elite competition for golfers who never turn professional as the main Amateur Championship is dominated by future professionals in their late teens and early twenties.
Senior British Open Championship: for men aged 50 and above. A major championship on the Champions Tour and the European Seniors Tour.
Walker Cup: a biennial men's amateur team competition contested by Great Britain & Ireland and the United States (co-organised with the United States Golf Association).
Junior Open Championships: for boys and girls under the age of 16 at 00.00 hours on 1 January of the relevant year.
St Andrews Trophy: a men's amateur team competition contested by Great Britain & Ireland and the Continent of Europe.
Jacques Leglise Trophy: a boys' amateur team competition contested by Great Britain & Ireland and the Continent of Europe. The present golf club

St Andrews Links
Old Course at St Andrews
British Golf Museum

Wednesday, August 22, 2007

Hank Crawford
Bennie Ross Crawford, Jr, aka Hank Crawford, (born December 21, 1934 in Memphis, Tennessee) is an R&B, hard bop, jazz-funk and soul-jazz alto saxophonist. From 1958 to 1963 he worked in Ray Charles's backup band. He also has done musical arrangement for Etta James, Lou Rawls, and others.

Tuesday, August 21, 2007

Edith Wharton (January 24, 1862August 11, 1937) was an American novelist, short story writer, and designer.

Early life
In 1902 she built The Mount, her estate in Lenox, Massachusetts, which was designed by her and exemplifies her design principles. The house and gardens have undergone extensive restoration and are open to the public from May through October. Edith Wharton wrote several of her novels while living there, including her 1905 novel, The House of Mirth, which constitutes the first of many large-scale efforts to chronicle the true nature of old New York. She maintained residence at The Mount until 1911, while at the same time becoming increasingly attached to her life in France. First, she resided at 58 Rue de Varenne, Paris, in an apartment that belonged to George Washington Vanderbilt II. Then, in 1918, once the chaos of the Great War had subsided, she abandoned her fashionable apartment for the more tranquil Pavillon Colombe, whose rich history intrigued her immensely, in nearby Saint-Brice-sous-Forêt. And, finally, she acquired Sainte-Claire le Château, formerly a convent, in the southern village of Hyères, to which she retreated during the winters and springs.
Helped by her husband and her influential connections in the French government (primarily by Walter Berry, then president of the American Chamber of Commerce in Paris and, in Edith's words, "the love of all my life"), she was among the few foreigners in France who had any access to their funds during the war and was also allowed to travel extensively by motorcar to the dangerous front lines of the war. Wharton described these trips in a series of articles later published as Fighting France: From Dunkerque to Belfort.
Throughout the war, she labored tirelessly in charitable efforts for refugees, and for her indispensable aid she was named a Chevalier of the Legion of Honor in 1916. The scope of her relief activities is astounding: Wharton operated work rooms for unemployed Frenchwomen, held concerts to provide work for musicians, supported tuberculosis hospitals, and founded the American Hostels for the relief of Belgian refugees. In 1916, Wharton edited a volume entitled The Book of the Homeless, featuring writings, art and musical scores from almost every major European artist of the day. After the war, she returned to the United States only once more — to receive her honorary doctorate from Yale University in 1923.

Literary Success
The Age of Innocence (1920), perhaps her best known work, won the 1921 Pulitzer Prize for literature, making her the first woman to win the award. She spoke flawless French and many of her books were published in both French and English.
Wharton was friend and confidante to many gifted intellectuals of her time: Henry James, Sinclair Lewis, Jean Cocteau, and André Gide were all guests of hers at one time or another. Bernard Berenson and Kenneth Clark were valued friends as well, and she was the godmother of Clark's second son, Colin (1932–2002), who wrote the book The Prince, the Showgirl and Me about his work as third assistant director of the film The Prince and the Showgirl. Her meeting with F. Scott Fitzgerald is described by the editors of her letters as "one of the better-known failed encounters in the American literary annals". She was also good friends with Theodore Roosevelt.
Wharton continued writing until her death on August 11, 1937, aged 75, in Saint-Brice-sous-Forêt, France. She is buried in the Cimetière des Gonards in Versailles, France.
Wharton's last novel, The Buccaneers, was unfinished at the time of her death. Marion Mainwaring finished the story after carefully studying the notes and synopsis Wharton had previously written. The novel was published in 1938 (unfinished version) and 1993 (Mainwaring's completion).

Later Life
She died in 1937 at her villa, Pavilion Colombes, near Saint Brice, Seine-et-Oise.

Many of Wharton's novels are characterized by a subtle use of dramatic irony. Having grown up in upper-class pre-World War I society, Wharton became one of its most astute critics. In such works as The House of Mirth and The Age of Innocence she employed both humor and profound empathy to describe the lives of New York's upper-class and the vanishing of their world in the early years of the 20th century.

Edith Wharton Characteristics of her writing

Verses (Novel), 1878
Only a Child, 1879 (poem)
The Decoration of Houses, 1897
The Greater Inclination, 1899
The Touchstone, 1900
The Line of Least Resistance, 1900
The Rembrandt, 1900
April Showers, 1900
Crucial Instances, 1901
The Moving Finger, 1901
The Recovery, 1901
Margaret of Cortona, 1901 (poem)
The Valley of Decision, 1902
The Quicksand, 1902
The Reckoning, 1902
The Mission of Jane, 1902
The Dilletante, 1903
The Vice of Reading, 1903
Italian Villas and Their Gardens, 1904
The Last Asset, 1904
The Letter (Novel), 1904
The Other Two, 1904
The Pot-Boiler, 1904
The Best Man (Novel), 1905
The House of Mirth, 1905
Italian Backgrounds, 1905
In Trust, 1906
The Introducers, 1906
The Fruit of the Tree, 1907
Madame de Treymes, 1907
A Motor-Flight Through France, 1908
The Bolted Door, 1908
Expiation, 1908
Artemis to Actaeon and Other Verse, 1909
A Grave, 1909 (poem)
Ogrin the Hermit, 1909
The Comrade, 1910
The Letters, 1910
Other Times, Other Manners, 1911
Ethan Frome, 1912
The Reef, 1912
The Long Run (Novel), 1912
The Custom of the Country, 1913
Coming Home, 1915
Fighting France, from Dunkerque to Belfort, 1915
The Great Blue Tent, 1915 (poem)
The Book of the Homeless, 1916
Xingu and Other Stories, 1916
The Bunner Sisters, 1916
Summer, 1917
The Marne, 1918
The Refugees, 1919
French Ways and Their Meaning, 1919
The Seed of the Faith, 1919
Writing a War Story, 1919
The Age of Innocence, 1920
In Morocco, 1920
In Provence and Lyrical Epigrams, 1920 (poem)
The Glimpses of the Moon, 1922
A Son at the Front, 1923
Old New York , 1924 (novel)
The Mother's Recompense, 1925
The Writing of Fiction, 1925
Here and Beyond, 1926
Twelve Poems, 1926
Twilight Sleep, 1927
The Children, 1928
Hudson River Bracketed, 1929
The Gods Arrive, 1932
Roman Fever, 1934
A Backward Glance, 1934
The Buccaneers, 1938 Further Reading
Edith Wharton (played by actress Clare Higgins) travels across North Africa with Indiana Jones in The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles (Chapter 16, which is entitled Tales of Innocence).
Edith Wharton was mentioned in the HBO Series "Entourage" in the 13th episode of the third season. A script for Wharton's The Glimpses of the Moon is handed to Vince for him to read by his new agent Amanda. The film is set to be directed by Sam Mendes. Edith Wharton period films are also lampooned in the same episode by fictional agent Ari Gold, who states all her stories are about a guy who likes a girl, but he can't (have sex) with her for five years because "THOSE WERE THE TIMES!" Ironically, the character of Amanda is played by actress Carla Gugino, who played the lead in a prominent Edith Wharton adaption for the BBC & PBS, The Buccaneers (1995). This was one of Gugino's first large roles.

Sunday, August 19, 2007

Shays' Rebellion or Shays Rebellion was an armed uprising in Western Massachusetts from 1786 to 1787. The rebels, led by Daniel Shays and known as Shaysites (or Regulators), were mostly small farmers angered by crushing debt and taxes. Failure to repay such debts often resulted in imprisonment in debtor's prisons or the claiming of property by the state. Though initial reactions were peaceful, the farmers eventually forcibly attempted to prevent courts in Western Massachusetts from sitting. The rebellion started on August 29, 1786. A Massachusetts militia that had been raised as a private army defeated the main Shaysite force on February 3, 1787. There was a lack of an institutional response to the uprising, which energized calls to reevaluate the Articles of Confederation and gave strong impetus to the Constitutional Convention which began in May 1787.

Shays' Rebellion Origins
Calling themselves "Regulators," men from all over western and central Massachusetts began to agitate for a change to a more democratic system. Initial disturbances were mostly peaceful and centered primarily on freeing jailed farmers from debtor's prisons or stopping courts from holding trial to claim land. Shays gathered many outraged farmers for a meeting at Conkey's Tavern, where he vented his anger and said they should rebel. In August 1786, the conflict escalated into a statewide movement when armed Regulators shut down the unpopular debtors' courts in Northampton, Worcester, Concord, and elsewhere. Shays continued to hold meetings at Conkey's Tavern and encourage rebellion. Militia groups called out to confront the Regulators often refused to confront their neighbors or failed to muster.
What is striking about Shays' Rebellion is that, although there was a great deal of confrontation, there were few casualties or damages until the final battles. This was a political struggle of armed demonstrators. For example, in July, 1786, militia units had converged on Springfield, Massachusetts. There, instead of seizing the federal arsenal, they had merely paraded in the streets before a politely drawn up local militia. However, they were dispersed after a volley of cannon balls was fired upon the ranks killing four regulators on the command of Major General Lincoln.
The rebellious forces were led by a number of prominent local people. Although Daniel Shays, a farmer from East Pelham and a former captain in the Revolutionary War, was most often identified as the overall commander of these forces, in fact leadership was collective among a number of local leaders. For example, another key leader was Luke Day, the son of a wealthy family in West Springfield. This points to the fact that while the Regulators were usually characterized as rabble, they were, in addition to yeoman farmers and other small landowners, town leaders, members of prominent local families, and very often veterans of the Massachusetts Line including their officers. For example, in Amherst, virtually every key town leader was involved in the regulation in one form or another. Many had distinguished military records; Daniel Shays, for example, a former enlisted man who was eventually promoted to an officer, had been decorated by the Marquis de Lafayette and honored by George Washington himself.

Springfield, 1787
Shays and his followers were pursued by Lincoln's now-legitimate militia to Petersham, The breakup of this rebel army was followed by guerrilla warfare, including attacks on wealthy landowners, the freeing of jailed farmers, and arson. The last known battle of this kind was fought in South Egremont. In the end, only two men, John Bly and Charles Rose, were hanged for their part in the rebellion.
In exchange for amnesty, Shays' followers were banned from elected office for three years and were not allowed to serve on juries or vote. Eventually the force for the rebellion was dissipated both by an improving economy and by elections that replaced some incumbents with individuals sympathetic to the rebellion. These elections (despite the ban) included many of Shays' followers.

List of Major League Baseball players suspended for steroids Legacy
The earliest account of the rebellion was George Richards Minot's History of the Insurrections in Massachusetts…, 1788. Although this account was deeply unsympathetic to the rural Regulators, it became the basis for most subsequent tellings, including the many mentions of the rebellion in Massachusetts town and state histories.
David Szatmary's Shays' Rebellion: The Making of an Agrarian Insurrection (Amherst: U. of Massachusetts Press, 1980) reassessed earlier interpretations of the rebellion. It is noteworthy for its reexamination, but some Wikipedia editors have raised concerns about the book's sources, methods, and conclusions.
Other works of note include Shays' Rebellion: Selected Essays, edited by Martin Kaufman (Westfield, Mass., 1987) and in In Debt to Shays: The Bicentennial of an Agrarian Rebellion, edited by Robert A. Gross (Charlottesville: U. Press of Virginia, 1993).
A recent examination of the rebellion and its aftermath is found in Leonard Richards' Shays' Rebellion: The American Revolution's Final Battle (U. of Pennsylvania Press, 2002). An exploration of the rebellion and its cultural legacy to the 1960s antiwar and communal Movement can be found in Amy Stevens' "Daniel Shays' Legacy? Marshall Bloom, Radical Insurgency & the Pioneer Valley" (Amherst, Collective Copies Press, 2005).
In fiction, the rebellion is the central story of James Lincoln Collier and Christopher Collier's children's novel The Winter Hero (Four Winds Press, 1978). It also plays a central role in William Martin's The Lost Constitution (2007).